What is Carpet ?
It is woven on every other single thread of wool,silk,flush looped with different teqniques compressing weft thread on kirkit comb which forms warp skeleton with cotton, bristle, silk, wool yarns in the longitudinal alignment of each side of the carpet.Number of wefts in manufacturing of carpet is 2 or 3. Generally,double weft is used in Turkey.Knots are cut with carpet scissor in a desired height after weaving a few lines.In recent years,also carpets cut with fluffed fuzz according to desired pattern. They are used as table wrap,coushion and ect.
Usally two types of knots are seen in carpet weaving:
Turkish Knot(Gördes Knot-Double Knot-Closed Knot)
Gordes Knot is also known as Turkish Knot around the world which takes it’s name from a district called Gordes of Manisa city in Turkey.There are also types in this knot.It is a knot that the yarn is wrapped around on first then second wire of double warp like widely used in middle Anatolia.The reversed type of same process is applied in the west side of Anatolia.Although it doesn t effect the quailty.It provides easyness in cutting fuzz of the weaved carpets in west Anatolia.
Iranian Knot(Sine Knot,Single Knot,Open Knot)
It takes it’s name from a district called Sine in Iran.This knot,thread is tied only to the wire that in front of double warp and looped around other side of the warp,pulled down and compressed.Double weft is used also in Iranian carpetsThis quality,colour and pattern carpets are manufactured in cities which are Uşak, Konya, Bergama (Yağcıbedir), Hereke, Gördes, Kula, Ladik, Sivas, Milas, Antalya (Döşeme altı), Fethiye, Kırşehir, Niğde, Kayseri, Isparta.
Carpet in Our Culture
Carpeting has become a part of the culture as the animal farming and agriculture is developed in Anatolia. People also supported themselves culturally as the agriculture and animal farming developed.
Rugs are woven in a result of turning wool obtained from animals into threads and use paint obtained from plants.Weaving rugs has provided technical and cultural development as well as trade.
Rugs have important place in the culture of Anatolia.It has various roles like,indicating wealth,being subject to the folkloric songs,being furniture at home,being gift or dowry,being a decoration material,being trade material and being woven teqhnically. It is one of the concepts that crosses mind when hear aword of Anatolia.
What is Carpet Trading ?
Even though the place and time of the the first carpet in the history is not determined by historians,the oldest samples found are widely known that it was manufactured in Middle East,Turkmenistan, China and Iran in 500 B.C.That is why this part of the world is known as Carpet Zone.
Golden age of miniaturists(carpet design) was especially during reign of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in 16.century in Ottoman developed by the information and knowledge passed over by Acem(Turkish)artists raised over the years.
Turkish Nomads also have weaving rugs in their culture.Rugs of Nomads narrate the migration tales and journeys with tough conditions on the rugs.Madder that is used on these rugs is prepared by Nomads. Weaving show it’s loyalty to the tradition and culture despite all dificulties.
Carpets that have been manufactured over centuries carry their inovative signs whilst telling us about traditions,history and legends.
First comminuty that used carpet is known to be Middle Eastern Nomads. They were used to keep the tents warm and produced from goat hair. Those carpets laid on the base and top of the tents are the first samples of heat insulation.
Carpets developed in time enabled manufacturing different rugs&carpets for different use. Carpets gain a new aesthetic look in time after being experienced regarding separating rooms in tents, worshipping facilities and storing food.
Double Knot known also as Turkish Knot is a result of Turkish art work tecnique. This technique which lies fine workmanship beneath ,provides around 100 knots on each centimetre square of the carpet. It usually takes 1 year weaving a carpet with this technique.
Carpets weaved in 36 different regions at present comes fom Anatolian woman’s hand. Even though they usually stick with traditional motifs and patterns,they sustain their cultures with their own interpreted motifs.On the other hand,carpet designers present Turkish carpets worldwide with a contemporary approach.
What Kinds of Carpets?
We divide carpets in 2,machine carpets and hand woven carpets.Quality levels vary by type for machine carpets whereas hand woven carpets divide as Antique,Oriental and newly produced carpets.
It is possible to classify newly produced carpets according to their equipments used and their types.(silk, wool, pure silk…)They also subclass themselves according to the equipments used.(silk carpets,woolen carpets and cotton carpets.)
Naturally the most important one among these are silk carpets due to it’s expensive quality material and more costly labour.
What are the fibre kinds?
Fiber is the basic component of carpet.In today’s world, 4 types of fibres are used and have strong features for themselves.Quality carpets can be produced with those types which are wool, polyester, nylon and polypropylene.
Product quality of the carpet needs to be considered in selection of what kinds of carpets to purchase.
Despite the most of the carpets are made of mixed materials,only 1 of those 4 fibre types is used in production. As well as those 4 main types,Acrylic and Pet Fibres are used seldomly.
Equipments forming the carpets
Pros of this carpet can be listed as below:
- Giving a soft feeling like wool when touched and similarity to the carpet
that is our cultural base like wool carpet.
- Durability against chemical equipments and oil.
- Moth eats wool carpets not Acrylic carpets.
- Durablity against the sun.
- Preserves its vivid look and buoyancy.
- To sum up,similarity to the woolen carpet,its buoyancy and being
affordable is an advantage unlike for stains,it is not the same.
Easy to clean and more durable against water compare to Acrylic. Also includes lively colours. It is humid-proof but not very good about usual stains at home. It’s draw backs are,firmness,therefore not flexible with low durabilty.It also doesn t give the feeling of comfort. Polyester carpets can be prefered for venues outside.It is not advisable for home use.
Polyamid – Nylon Carpet
Nylon carpets have became very popular in recent years.Being durable and including live colours which covers dirt are the usual reasons to be chosen. Big furniture brands,producers of kids room and new fashion carpet brands spreaded this kind around.
Definition of carpet should be;not mashed and give a comfort&soft feeling like wool. This is widely used type even though it doesn t match completely to the definition.
Polyproplen (Olefin) Carpet
It is Olefin carpet that isn t flexible and that doesn t give any soft feeeling when tuoched. If you wonder what it is like?You could think of minifiel carpets.It is the most durable kind against the water .Colour and paint doesn t panetrate,stays on the surface of the carpet.Due to it’s resistance and not faded under the sun,it is
preferred for open air venues.
It’s fibre type is wool which sets carpet standards.If it is hazelnuts for chocolate,if it is milk for icecream or cotton for a shirt,it would be Wool for a good carpet.Wool also can be mixed with other threads.Wool carpets are not affordable for families with average and low income.
Here we can list the pros of wool carpets,
- The softest and most comfort type(except for palaces usally owned by
- Extremely durable.
- Flame-resistant.It doesn t create static energy.
- Our wool carpets preserves their vivid colours and buoyancy as it was on
the first day of purchase. Unfortunately,it has a drawback like,to be eaten by moths.Because of its
delicacy,it is difficult take care and preserve compare to other carpets.
There are also another types of carpets produced with the combination of those 4
main thread material.
Which carpet has better quality (to compare with weaving materials)
It seems it is the right desicion to prefer polyester,polypropylene and polyamide carpets because they are durable against damp,water and stains when compared with their features.These models offered by big furniture companies makes them look cute with colourful models. However,it is not a good selection when to think about their durability,preserving live tones of colours and softness. Furthermore,they can not to be said that they are healthy. The wool carpet would meet your criteria whereas affordable one is acrylic carpet.
Carpet Weaving Methods
New hand-woven carpets and old hand-woven carpets can be seen between the eyes, there is a difference in quality that can be felt by hand. It is the value of the material used, ie wool and paint, which creates quality difference. The weaving technique (Turkish Node, Gördes Node, Double Node) is the same. Although the use of lamb wool and root dye in carpets and rugs produces a higher quality product, in the following years it causes the value of material and spiritual value to be added without any decrease.
TYPES OF KNOTS : Carpets have two types of knots:
DOUBLE KNOT (TURKISH KNOT, GÖRDES KNOT)
SINGLE KNOT (IRAN KNOT, SENA KNOT)
What is Machine Carpet?
Machine carpets have been in our country for 25-30 years.They are incomparably fast and effective to hand-made carpets. It requires to be more conscious with a less labour power. 1000 metersquere carpet can be manufactured with 8 hours work of the machine.Despite having such big capacity,they have no art value at all.Maximum of 8 colour is used.There isn t any technique(knot)in machine carpets like hand-made ones.
How Carpet Washing Should be?
Carpets you ordered to be washed are picked up by our personnel at your door,gets laballed in exchange with the delivery receipt and placed in sacks.This method eliminates the chance of getting lost. The dimension, age, type and colour of all the carpets in our premises are checked in order to decide which is the most suitable cycle and method to wash. This free service is provided by our experts. It is important to know whether the rear of carpet resist waterproof and kind of weaving(fuzz,cut fuzz,buckle) or fibres have been used.
In order to prevent forming mud at the base,carpets gets beat one by one and purified from hair and dust with vacuum by using our new Dust Removal Machine.This increases quality of washing. Our new system full automatic carpet washing machine washes your carpets evenly one by one with organic shampoo. Our pipe type centrifuge machine dries 95% of the carpet by itself with no harm at all. They are ventilated on other floor. Our new system Fuzz Cleaner Machine,combs carpet hair in their natural direction to provide shine and softness.Also fuzz hair is cleaned and quality control is done. Cleaned carpets are rolled up and tucked inside it’s free case and delivered to customer’s adress with no charge!
Carpet Cleanıng Methods
Cleaning Carpets by Hand: This method is used in rural areas even though it’s very old.Washing is done with a brush,using laundry detergent and washing up detergent.They are rised off,then they are hanged to be dried under the sun. Too much water is wasted.The detergents used do not remove stains completely. It is difficult to carry because they are not squeezed before hanged.It consumes too much time & energy.
Washing in machine by hand: Many carpet washing companies uses this method like Papatya Carpet Wash.This method doesn t harm the carpet at all. It can be intervened any time when needed. Carpets washed and rinsed with lots of water before passing to drying stage.
Automatic carpet washing machine: Number of people using this method is increasing in today’s world.A carpet comfortably placed on one side of the machine comes out as cleaned from the other side. Due to pool soaking system is used,it is sometimes too late to intervene if there was an issue.
Stain Application On Carpet
Everyone have their practical solutions when they exprience a stain at home/work.Other than that,you need to keep a number of carpet cleaner company number handy in case you can not remove it. Because valuable carpets like silk ones need to be operated immediately. Otherwise stain would stay there forever.
In removal of a stain,water usage shouldn t be exceeded.Otherwise it might cause stain to penetrate other side of the carpet.Solvent needs to be used in the cases of oily stains.However,if vinyl is used in production of the carpet,products to clean should not consist of any ammonia.
You have to act quick to have the stains removed,otherwise there will be not much to do even for proffesionals.You can protect your carpet from forever stains by interventions with the right equipments at the right time. That is why,storing a cleaning product at home might be a solution for local staining.
In the cases of spillage on your carpet,ensure liquid is removed with a dry cloth or towel by dapping.Do not rub which causes stain to spread.Ensure the material you used absorbs whole liquid.After that, you can decide what kind of method is needed to be used for the removal of the stain.
A sharp knife, metal or spatula can be used to remove food & beverage. You can then use a method you wish to use.
After absorbing liquid, it needs to be dried immediately.A warmed up place with no humidity in winter,a place with ventilation in summer is needed.You can also use hair drier for local applications.Hanging on the radiators might leave stain.
Leaving carpet outside in humid air would not help driying.It also should not be stepped on when wet.
Do not forget to apply cleaning products on an invisible part of your carpet before begin to clean. Mix same amount of cold water with dry-cleaning liquid for the removal of oily stains.
Carpet Drying Methods
The carpet drying room to be prepared should not be greater than 100 m³ (cubic meters). Rooms larger than 100 m³ will require a second machine. The cubic meter of volume is related to the square meter and ceiling height of the room. It is not recommended that the ceiling height is higher than 2.5 m. Carpet drying rooms should be prepared as a room suitable for use. The biggest feature of the room to be prepared for carpet drying is that it is thermally insulated and isolated. In non-isolated rooms, the heat loss will be too high and the drying process will take longer than calculated.
This means more time and more energy consumption for the carpet cleaning factory. The purpose of the carpet drying room is to dry the carpets in cold and snowy, rainy winter days or in summer when the carpets need to be dry. Carpet dryer is already preferred for this purpose. The size of the carpet drying rooms is very important. In a reasonable carpet drying room, there must be a proportional carpet drying room in order to gain efficiency from the carpet dryer and dehumidifiers. Carpet dryer may vary according to the rooms. Larger machines should be installed as motor power in large diameter carpet drying rooms. In this way, more carpets will be dried and time is saved.
CHEMICALS USED IN CARPET WASHING
The Importance of Cleaning Carpets
Our children are our most valuable assets. Our babies begin to crawl on your carpets for the first time after stepping into life on your carpets, and they fall on your carpets many times. They are always on the carpet, perhaps the most used items in the house in the children's room that carpet comes.
So what happens if you do not clean the carpet, carpet hygiene will lose the cleanliness of the remaining work and microbes multiply, multiplying microbes that damage your child and his friends will be sick. When a sick friend sneezes sneezes, the diseased bacteria squeeze into the carpet and breathe or contact your child through these diseases. Health is very important.
Remember to do your cleaning regularly to prevent your child from becoming ill. We must not forget that the head of everything is health.
So what happens if you do not clean the carpet, carpet hygiene will lose the cleanliness of the work remains and the germs multiply, multiplying micrpolar your child and his friends will cause damage to patients. When a sick friend sneezes sneezes, the diseased bacteria squeeze into the carpet and breathe or contact your child through these diseases. Health is very important.
Remember to do your cleaning on a regular basis to prevent your child from getting sick.
Carpet Cleaning at Home
Before Cleaning Carpet…
What method of cleaning you need to use to clean carpet is more important than how hard it is to remove stain.
- Consider the type of stain.Tea stain for instance,knowing how to remove will lead you to more effective way.
- Cleaning before they are dried will prevent stains to reach deeper.At this stage,cleaning movement of sideways should be avoided to stop spreading of stain.Stain must be rubbed to do it correctly.
- Use vinegar for smelly stains.Mix it with half-filled warm water in a bowl and dab it on gently.
- Use materials with firm surface to get the best result to clean your carpet.
- You should pick warm days instead of cold ones when cleaning your carpets.Unfortunately,carpet isn t an item that dries quickly.
- It would be useful to clean carpet surface from hair,dirt and dust before start cleaning your carpet.
- Use vacuum cleaner if you wish to prolong your carpets’life.
Selecting the right carpet
Hand made carpet or machine carpet?
Wouldn t it help to know whether it is hand made or machine carpet when buying a new carpet to your house?It would be enough to turn and see the back of the carpet.There are no knots on the machine carpets.Wool fibres are placed with machine and reinforced with latex.This process gives firm texture,diagonal lines to the back of the carpet with an aesthetic look.Lines of knots can be seen on rear of handmade carpet. It takes longer to finish hand made carpet compare to machine carpet because of knotting on each row. In conclusion,the tighter woven hand made carpet get,higher quality level is reached.
You need to take a look at the quality of wool to see the quality of the carpet.The length of fibre of wool,its flexibility and it’s brightness is important.Width of carpet isn't a criteria quality valuation.If the pattern of carpet is not seen obviously, it means it has not been weaved tightly.Good knots points higher quality.Number of knotting per centimetre square indicates how much laboring was needed in production of that hand made carpet.For a good carpet,there are more than 180 knots per centimetre square. A talented craft person can make around 800 knot per hour.
Carpet Use in the World
The oldest carpet known in the world is called ”Pazirik“ carpet. This carpet, which is currently exhibited in a museum in Russia, was discovered by Russian archaeologists.
This carpet, which was woven about 2500 years ago, was woven by the double knot technique called "Turkish knot" or "Gordes knot". It is also known by the Turks that it is touched by this feature.
Even if he pointed to 2500 years ago as a date, in fact, by far the oldest dates, it was recorded that the carpet was used by the Turks.
The carpet was made by touching the nomadic tents for use as a bed and then shortened the pile lengths and made it suitable for daily use.
Carpets, Hand Weaving and Machine Weaving carpets are divided into two groups according to the type of weaving.
Hand woven carpets are used in many parts of the world, especially for decorative purposes and accessories.
Machine carpets are preferred especially in home and living areas as piece or wall-to-wall carpets.
Hand woven carpets are among the most important cultural heritages in many parts of the world, especially reflecting the lifestyle, habits and history of that region or region.
Machine manufacturer in the carpet which is currently in the best position in the world in Turkey produced 90 percent of the carpet 's relatives are exported to abroad.
On the other hand Turkey, but also in hand-woven carpets has taken its place among the leading countries of the world.
In today's world, carpet is now among the most preferred items in homes, workplaces, hotels and similar living spaces.
Furniture, wall colors, curtain colors and patterns are selected in the carpet is also added to them.
For this reason, carpets are produced in many different sizes and shapes, in different color and pattern combinations and presented to consumers.
Carpet is one of the fastest growing sectors in the world.
This product, which is continuously consumed and used, has naturally developed different sectors.
Carpet Cleaning Sector comes first.
Carpet cleaning job of persons engaged in this sector, carpet washing and cleaning machines used cleaning products and supplies in Turkey are produced and exported to many points in the world.
The carpets are produced and manufactured in different regions of the world and in different sizes and sizes.
Hand made Carpet
Weaving is done on developed spiral(vertical)benches.There is also weaving on horizontal benches for small sizes.The bench is set up before weaving begins and warp thread is brought according to dimensions,types and quality.Calculation of possible narrowing during preparation and tightening warp thread.Having left gap for fringe,chain type of weaving at the ends to prevent unstitching that is locally called ‘Çiti’. Next stage after çiti, rug part of carpet is woven(between 1-4cm)before weaving on knotted area begins. Coloured knotting threads are given a shape of a ball and align on a plank horizantaly on the bench where is reachable by the weaver.The pattern of the carpet which is drawn on checkered paper is attached on warp where is seen by the weaver. Those papers vary according to the quality of the carpet. Each square is thought as a knot.Therefore the size of the paper change depending on the quality,dimension and how tight it is woven.A quarter for core carpets,half for the carpets with altar and whole paper for the carpets with report is enough . Colours are painted on the paper meticulously minding empty and countable squares under. Patterns can be cut and used as in pieces to make it easier for the weaver.Having selected the pattern, weaver sits (cross-legged) and begins to weave upwardly.As the weaver proceeds,the seat is raised and completed part is either reeled up or moved to the back of the bench.
Factors Effecting the Quality of the Carpets
- Choice of bench according to carpet types.
- Moisture status of the place where weaving is done.
- Use of warp thread according to variable quality.
- Installing warp properly on the bench.
- Using weft thread or knotting thread according to the quality.
- Beginning should be with a master weaver.
- Texture of rug should be done in accordance with the size of carpet.
- Pattern should be talked through with the weaver.
- Knotting should be suitable with quality.
- Snapping knots by hand.
- Using scissors suitable with the character of carpet.
Machines Used in Washing Carpets
Carpet washing process and in cleaning floors are done by different machines provided with advancement of technology.Those machines are designed for automatic&manuel use and used professionally for all kinds of ground.The most preferred models are the one to be used on sensitive surfaces.Those machines preferred by the firms recently entered sector also reduce labour cost to minimum.As well as cleaning dust,dirt and food crumbs,also succesful compared to the old methods.Thanks to polishing and ground brushing tools which can be mounted on machines,it provides all grounds a shinier look. Main application areas; convention saloons,shopping centres,schools,hospitals and wedding saloons.Polishing process can be made on floors like parquet,marble and etc.
Ground cleaning and polishing machines are used by corporate firms.Main body of machine is consist of thick plastic and able to multifunction.It is also used to clean carpets which are unsuitable to be washed by automatic carpet machines.Skills of 50cm brush dimametre machine can be seen in large areas for ground cleaning,carpet cleaning and polishing.Carpet cleaning machines with 16 litre detergent tank and water tank are produced in different colour and models.It is easy to use and programmed to minimize labour need.. Handle of carpet washing machine is an important part to check when buying a new one.This handle assist you to reach all surfaces easily,practically and without giving you hard time when used It also has to be impact-absorbent. Thanks to joint level setting system at carpet washing machines,as well as setting infinitely,it also has different washing methods for different types of surfaces.In addition,operation time should be taken into account and right features should be applied on right carpets.
History of Carpet
Carpet: Mostly made of wool or sometimes silk to be laid on the floor or on a furniture or to hang on the wall,short hair,with or without embroidered knitting is common. The first carpet known,was found in the escavations in Siberia Altai district at Pazarık bunkers. That carpet was made with Turkish knots believed to be from between 5th and 3rd century B.C. This finding proves that art of carpet is a craft that belongs to Turkish culture.Information that is about the carpets before 13th century is only provided by written sources.During Seljuk empire in 11th century,it is known that carpets were made between Middle East and Iran.It has spreaded after the precence of Seljuks in Anatolia.Most of the oldest carpets from this era was found in Alaattin Mosque in Konya and some in Beyşehir Eşrefoğlu Mosque. Plants and geometrical motifs were predominantly used.After 14th century,motifs were changed to animal. The oldest examples of those carpets used until the end of 15th century is Ming carpet exhibited in Berlin museum and Marby carpet was found in Marby village in Sweden. Star motifs were also used in 14th and 15th century along with animal motifs.Carpets knows as Holbein carpets take their names from renowed painter from that era called Hans Holbein.
Carpets in this group divides into 4 categories:
a)Ground that is formed of geometrical design is devided into squares and an octagonal is placed into each square.
b)Geometrical design was replaced by plant motifs.Division of ground was no different than the first one.Due to be seen widely in the pictures of Lorenzo Lotti,they are also called Lotti carpets.
c)Design in this group is same as the first and second group.However,octagons and squares within are much bigger.
d)There is a big square in the middle and small squares around.